- Web Services, Workers, Private Services, and Cron Jobs
- Docker Images
- Repo & Branch
- Root Directory
- Build Filters
- Environment Variables
- Placeholder Environment Variables
- Properties Available to Environment Variables
- Custom Domains
- Static Site Headers
- Static Site Routes
- Instance Types
- Health Check Path
- Number of Instances
- Docker Options
- Redis Instances
Sample Blueprint Spec
Here’s a sample Blueprint spec that uses most of the supported settings for infrastructure as code. Use it to get started with your own
services: # A Docker web service - type: web name: webdis env: docker repo: https://github.com/render-examples/webdis.git # optional region: oregon # optional (defaults to oregon) plan: standard # optional (defaults to starter instance type) branch: master # optional (defaults to master) rootDir: webdis dockerCommand: ./webdis.sh # optional (defaults to Dockerfile command) numInstances: 3 # optional (defaults to 1) healthCheckPath: / envVars: - key: REDIS_HOST fromService: type: redis name: lightning property: host # available properties are listed below - key: REDIS_PORT fromService: type: redis name: lightning property: port - fromGroup: conc-settings # A private Minio instance - type: pserv name: minio env: docker repo: https://github.com/render-examples/minio.git # optional envVars: - key: MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD generateValue: true # will generate a base64-encoded 256-bit secret - key: MINIO_ROOT_USER sync: false # placeholder for a value to be added in the dashboard - key: PORT value: 10000 disk: name: data mountPath: /data sizeGB: 10 # optional # A Ruby web service - type: web name: sinatra env: ruby repo: https://github.com/renderinc/sinatra-example.git scaling: minInstances: 1 maxInstances: 3 targetMemoryPercent: 60 # optional if targetCPUPercent is set targetCPUPercent: 60 # optional if targetMemory is set buildCommand: bundle install startCommand: bundle exec ruby main.rb domains: - test0.render.com - test1.render.com envVars: - key: STRIPE_API_KEY value: Z2V0IG91dHRhIGhlcmUhCg - key: DB_URL fromDatabase: name: elephant property: connectionString - key: MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD fromService: type: pserv name: minio envVarKey: MINIO_ROOT_PASSWORD autoDeploy: false # optional # A Python cron job that runs every hour - type: cron name: date env: python schedule: "0 * * * *" buildCommand: "true" # ensure it's a string startCommand: date repo: https://github.com/render-examples/docker.git # optional # A background worker that consumes a queue - type: worker name: queue env: docker dockerfilePath: ./sub/Dockerfile # optional dockerContext: ./sub/src # optional branch: queue # optional # A static site - type: web name: my blog env: static buildCommand: yarn build staticPublishPath: ./build pullRequestPreviewsEnabled: true # optional buildFilter: paths: - src/**/*.js ignoredPaths: - src/**/*.test.js headers: - path: /* name: X-Frame-Options value: sameorigin routes: - type: redirect source: /old destination: /new - type: rewrite source: /a/* destination: /a # A Redis instance - type: redis name: lightning ipAllowList: # required - source: 0.0.0.0/0 description: everywhere plan: free # optional (defaults to starter instance type) maxmemoryPolicy: noeviction # optional (defaults to allkeys-lru) databases: - name: elephant databaseName: mydb # optional (Render may add a suffix) user: adrian # optional ipAllowList: # optional (defaults to allow all) - source: 203.0.113.4/30 description: office - source: 198.51.100.1 description: home - name: private database databaseName: private ipAllowList:  # only allow internal connections envVarGroups: - name: conc-settings envVars: - key: CONCURRENCY value: 2 - key: SECRET generateValue: true - key: USER_PROVIDED_SECRET sync: false - name: stripe envVars: - key: STRIPE_API_URL value: https://api.stripe.com/v2
You can define services in your Blueprint spec. Each service must have a
name. The service
type must be one of the following:
webfor a web service
workerfor a background worker
pservfor a private service
cronfor a cron job
redisfor a Redis instance
webservice with a
staticenvironment. The type of a service cannot be changed once it's created. Services created as static sites cannot be changed to other environments.
Web Services, Workers, Private Services, and Cron Jobs
webfor a web service
workerfor a background worker
pservfor a private service
cronfor a cron job
- In addition to
name, each service should have an
- Cron jobs must have a
- Each service should have a
startCommandunless it’s a Docker service. For Docker services (both from images you build and from Dockerfile), Render users the command in your
Dockerfile. This can be overridden by specifying
dockerCommandin your service definition.
render.yaml can specify a docker image they would like to use. This is done by using an
image must contain a
url. If the image is private, you must also specify a
creds that contains the name of a credential that has access to the image.
env: image image: url: docker.io/my-name/my-image:latest creds: fromRegistryCreds: name: my-credential-name
Repo & Branch
render.yaml can omit a
repo. If a
repo is missing, we will look to see if an
image is specified. If neither an
image nor a
repo is in the file, it is assumed to be the repo the Blueprint spec is in. The specified repo must be accessible to you.
You can also omit a
branch. Render will use the repo’s default branch if it’s omitted.
If you explicitly set a
branch then that will apply to all preview environments created. If you omit this then the rules above will apply and for preview environments, the branch the pull request is against would be deployed.
Defining the Root Directory for a service ensures changes to files inside the Root Directory trigger a build and deploy. Changes to files outside the Root Directory will not trigger a build for the service. This is useful for monorepo services.
You can also omit
rootDir. The default value of a service’s Root Directory is the top-level directory of the Git repository.
Specifying Build Filters for a service allows you to use glob patterns to include and exclude individual file paths for which changes trigger a build.
Paths for Build Filters are always relative to the top-level directory of your Git repository.
You can also omit
buildFilter. By default, a change to any file path will trigger a build for the service.
buildFilter: paths: - src/**/*.js ignoredPaths: - src/**/*.test.js
A service can be deployed in a specific region by adding an optional
region field. If specified, the region field must be one of following:
If not specified, the region defaults to
The service environment must be one of the following:
A service can specify zero or more environment variables. These variables can be plain variables as follows:
key: A value: B
They can depend on the properties of other Render services like PostgresSQL databases and Redis instances:
key: DB_URL fromDatabase: name: prod property: connectionString key: REDIS_URL fromService: type: redis name: lightning property: connectionString
The set of available properties is defined below.
You can pull environment variables from other servers and cron jobs with a different key:
key: MYSQL_PASSWORD fromService: name: mysql type: pserv envVarKey: PASSWORD
The value of an environment variable can also be generated (only if the key doesn’t already exist).
key: APP_SECRET generateValue: true
Environment variables can also be set all at once from an environment group:
Placeholder Environment Variables
There are some environment variables which you don’t want to include in your Blueprint spec and are not
generated such as external secrets. For those, you can specify a placeholder environment variable
sync: false. This allows you to declare that an environment variable is expected without
having to specify a value in your Blueprint spec. You will later be prompted to enter a value for these
variables on the dashboard before your deployment is finalized.
Placeholder environment variables defined with
sync: false will not be copied to preview environments, unless they’re part of a separately managed environment group.
key: SOME_SECRET sync: false # will not be copied to preview environments
You can choose to provide a value for these variables before you approve your changes:
Properties Available to Environment Variables
Environment variables can refer to the following properties on PostgreSQL databases:
databaseis the PostgreSQL database name (not the friendly name)
Environment variables can refer to the following properties on Redis instances:
connectionStringtakes the form of
Environment variables can refer to the following properties on servers and cron jobs:
hostportis the service’s host and port separated by a colon, as in
When depending on other Redis instances, servers, or cron jobs, you must include the
name of the target service. The
service does not need to be in the Blueprint spec. If it’s not in the Blueprint spec, it must already exist in your Render account.
Here’s an example of an environment variable referring to a service property:
fromService: name: minio type: pserv property: host
render.yamldoes not support variable interpolation. The best way to accomplish this is to pair environment variables with a build or start script that does the interpolation for you.
You can specify whether your service has a Disk attached to it. A disk must have a
mountPath, and (optionally) a size in GB (
disk: name: redis-data mountPath: /opt/redis sizeGB: 10
You can specify custom domains for your service in the
domains field. If a domain is an apex
www. subdomain will be added automatically and will redirect to the apex domain.
If a domain is a
www. subdomain, the apex domain will be added automatically and will redirect to the
Every web service is always accessible at its
Static Site Headers
You can specify HTTP headers for your static site with the
headers field like
you can in the dashboard.
headers: # add X-Frame-Options: sameorigin to all paths - path: /* name: X-Frame-Options value: sameorigin # add Cache-Control: must-revalidate to /blog paths - path: /blog/* name: Cache-Control value: must-revalidate
Static Site Routes
You can specify redirect and rewrite routes for your static site with
routes field just like in the dashboard.
routes: # redirect (HTTP status 301) from /a to /b - type: redirect source: /a destination: /b # rewrite /app/* requests to /app - type: rewrite source: /app/* destination: /app
The service instance type (
plan field) can be specified by name and is case insensitive. Render will maintain the service’s current instance type for existing services where no instance type is specified in the
render.yaml. The following values are valid for instance types (
free(not available for Private Services, Background Workers, and Cron Jobs)
The instance type will default to
plan is unspecified on service creation.
Health Check Path
You can set a health check path for your HTTP service for zero downtime
deploys by adding the
Number of Instances
You can set the number of instances you want for your service by setting the
Instead of setting a static number of instances for your service, you can autoscale your service based on target CPU and/or memory utilization.
scaling: minInstances: 1 maxInstances: 3 targetMemoryPercent: 60 # optional if targetCPUPercent is set (valid: 1-90) targetCPUPercent: 60 # optional if targetMemory is set (valid: 1-90)
- Services with disks cannot be scaled up yet.
- Payment info is required to turn on autoscaling.
- Services with autoscaling enabled prior to
render.yamlsupport will keep existing settings set in dashboard until this section is specified in their
render.yamlfile for their service.
- Services in preview environments will launch with
minInstancesnumber of instances. Autoscaling is disabled for services in preview environments.
If your service is Docker-based, i.e. it has
env: docker, then you can optionally specify the
dockerContext. These are relative to your repo root. This is useful for
monorepo Docker services.
dockerfilePath: ./sub/Dockerfile dockerContext: ./sub/src
You can create Redis instances by defining them in
render.yaml under the
services section. A Redis instance requires
ipAllowList — all other fields are optional.
You can also set the Redis
maxmemoryPolicy. The following Redis specifications are valid:
services: # Redis 1 - all fields defined - type: redis name: thunder ipAllowList: # required - allow external connections from only these CIDR blocks - source: 203.0.113.4/30 description: office - source: 198.51.100.1 description: home region: frankfurt # optional (defaults to oregon) plan: pro # optional (defaults to starter instance type) previewPlan: starter # optional (defaults to the value specified by 'plan') maxmemoryPolicy: allkeys-lru # optional (defaults to allkeys-lru) # Redis 2 - all external connections allowed - type: redis name: lightning ipAllowList: # required - allow external connections from everywhere - source: 0.0.0.0/0 description: everywhere # Redis 3 - no external connections allowed - type: redis name: private redis ipAllowList:  # only allow internal connections
See Access Control for details on using the
Once a Redis instance is created, you can change the
ipAllowList fields. Changes to the
region field for an existing Redis instance will be ignored.
Like other types of services, you can reference Redis instance properties from environment variables. See Environment Variables for details.
You can create PostgresSQL databases by defining them in
render.yaml. A PostgreSQL database only needs a
name — all other fields are optional.
You can also set the PostgreSQL
postgresMajorVersion. The following PostgreSQL database specifications are valid:
databases: # db 1 - name: staging # db 2 - name: prod region: frankfurt plan: pro databaseName: prod_app user: app_user ipAllowList: # optional (defaults to allow all) - source: 203.0.113.4/30 description: office - source: 198.51.100.1 description: home # db 3 - name: private database databaseName: private ipAllowList:  # only allow internal connections postgresMajorVersion: 15 # optional (defaults to the latest available, supported versions are 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15)
Just like the dashboard, once a PostgreSQL database is created, you can only change the instance type it’s on. Other
render.yaml changes to database fields for an existing database will be ignored, and changes to the major version will result in an error.
You can specify which IP addresses can access your database from outside Render’s network using an
ipAllowList: - source: 203.0.113.4/30 description: office # optional - source: 198.51.100.1
IP address ranges can be given with CIDR notation and the description is optional.
The IP allow list is optional for PostgreSQL databases. If it’s omitted, any source with the right credentials can access your PostgreSQL database.
The IP allow list is required for Redis instances.
You can block all external connections by providing an empty list.
ipAllowList:  # only allow internal connections
You can allow all external connections with the following CIDR block and description.
ipAllowList: # allow external connections from everywhere - source: 0.0.0.0/0 description: everywhere
Learn more at Database Access Control and Redis Access Control.
You can define environment groups in your Blueprint spec.
- Environment groups can have zero or more environment variables.
- The environment variables in an environment group cannot depend on other resources, unlike the environment variables in a service. However, you can still generate environment variables within an environment group. The following is a valid environment group spec:
envVarGroups: - name: conc-settings envVars: - key: CONCURRENCY value: 2 - key: SECRET generateValue: true
Placeholder environment variables defined with
sync: false don’t have any effect when they’re included as part an environment group in a blueprint.